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No. 10 (247) July 2014


On June 20, 2014 in a reading hall of the library in the Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Land Reclamation, the meeting with Michael Davidson, U.S. Speaker and Specialist United States Department of State, on the theme “Climate Smart Agriculture in a Changing World: Lessons Learned and Lessons to be Learned” was hosted. Specialists from different organizations active in agricultural and water management practices, including students from the hosting institute participated at the workshop. SIC ICWC was represented by Mr. M. Khorst, the Consultant, and A. Khaliullina.

In the Introduction, there was mentioned about the Global and Regional Status and Trends: emissions, climate, land and water. Agriculture has active impact on ecosystems: thus, currently 44% of land is used for agricultural needs, but in several years the forecast tells about increasing up to 60%. 17% of land used for agriculture in a global scale is a condition for the sustainable ecosystems. Water losses at irrigated agriculture due to transpiration make 13-18%, runoff and drainage - 44%, evaporation from soil and water – 8-13%, and only 30% - storage and conveyance.

Principles, practices and lessons of sustainable climate smart agriculture were considered. They include Evidentiary Case Studies, Adaptation Strategies (Lessons Learned) for Mitigation and Improved Production, Irrigation Efficiency, and The American Contribution. Risks of decreased productivity of lands good for crops, such as rice, maize, soya, wheat, due to forecast drought were provided.

The following climate projections for Uzbekistan were presented: 1.90 C to 2.40 C increase in mean annual temperature by 2050; 15-18% increase in mean annual precipitation by 2050; 2km3 (2005) to 11-13km3 (2050) water deficit; greater reliance on deficient water resources as increased ET offset increases in Pe; increased exposure to new pests and disease; increased length of growing season.

Climate-Smart Agriculture Tools for Crop Production Services include: integrated pest management, integrated nutrient management, conservation tillage, agroforestry, water harvesting, integrated irrigation practices, microbiota colonization, drought, temperature, water scarce-tolerant seeds.

Due to the Climate Smart Agriculture tools application, water productivity indicators increased, for instance, for irrigated cotton by 29.4%, rainfed cereals – by 70.2%.

Summary of adoption and impact of sustainable agricultural practices (Pretty et al) demonstrated increased yield of 129.8% at a smallholder irrigated, and the same of 99.2% at smallholder rainfed dry/cold.

Benefits of microbial services were told about: colonization of plant roots allowing greater soil penetration, greater access to moisture and nutrients; agglomeration of soil particles improving moisture retention; greater capacity for heat stress.

The following technologies for greater efficiency were proposed: VFD pumps, SSID, pivots, minimum tillage, variable nutrient applications, ET-based irrigation.

The comparative analysis of typical application efficiencies was made for irrigated systems. Thus, microirrigation efficiency reaches 85-95%, and furrow irrigation – 45-65%.

Also, the comparative analysis of costs of irrigation systems was delivered.